Kiddush and the Gift of Shabbos
1) One who gives a gift to his friend should let him know, as it is written, “I am G-d Who sanctifies you.” Hashem said to Moshe, “I have a good gift in my treasure house and its name is Shabbos. I would like to give it to the Jewish people. Go tell them.” From here it is learned that if one gives to a child he should notify the mother. How? By smearing some on the child. Didn’t we learn that you do not need to notify, as we find that Moshe didn’t know that his face was aglow? It depends if the recipient will find out. Isn’t Shabbos something that they will figure out? The reward is something that they would not figure out.
2) Even a single person who is praying should recite “Vayichulu- And they were completed”. Whoever recites “Vayichulu,” is considered a partner with Hashem in creation. The verse says, “And they were completed,” but it is understood, “And they completed.”
3) Two angels accompany a person from shul to his home on the eve of Shabbos. One is good and one is bad. When he comes home, if he finds the Shabbos candles lit, the table set, the bed made, then the good angel says, “May it be the Will that next week should be the same,” and the bad angel is forced to answer, “Amen”. But if not, then the bad angel says, “May it be the Will that next week should be the same,” and the good angel is forced to answer, “Amen”.
4) One must place a covering on the table under the bread, and another covering on top.
5) Fresh wine may be used for Kiddush. One may squeeze a cluster of grapes and recite Kiddush over the juice.
6) Kiddush is only valid in the place of the meal.
7) If one recited Kiddush and before he had a chance to drink he talked, he should recite the bracha of Hagofen again, but he need not recite Kiddush again.
Similarly, if the cup spilled before he had a chance to drink, he should bring a new cup- but he need not repeat Kiddush.